Pulmonary diseases: Treatment, Diagnosis and therapies

1. Spirometer is a noninvasive test to assess lung function. During the test, you’ll take a deep breath and then blow into a tube connected to the spirometer.
 2. Imaging tests include a chest X-ray or CT scan. These images can provide a detailed look at your lungs, blood vessels, and heart.
3. An arterial blood gas test involves taking a blood sample from an artery to measure blood oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other important levels.
 Treatment:
 Smoking cessationThe most essential step in any treatment plan for COPD is to stop all smoking. It's the only way to keep COPD from getting defective which can eventually reduce ability to breathe.
 Bronchodilators: These medications which usually come in an inhaler relax the muscles around airways. This can help relieve coughing and shortness of breath and make breathing easier.
 Inhaled steroids: Inhaled corticosteroid medications can reduce airway inflammation and help prevent exacerbations. Side effects may include bruising, oral infections and hoarseness. These medications are useful for people with frequent exacerbations of COPD.
 Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors: A new type of medication approved for people with severe COPD and symptoms of chronic bronchitis is roflumilast a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. This drug decreases airway inflammation and relaxes the airways.
  

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